什麼是社區支持型農業(CSA)?

編按:韓德森女士為了幫助參加農村工作坊的學員了解社區支持型農業(CSA:Community Supported Agriculture),特地整理這篇簡介,對於關心此議題的朋友,我推薦您閱讀她的原文與本文(感謝蔡月蜜小姐的翻譯).

Introduction to Community Supported Agriculture

By Elizabeth Henderson

Elizabeth Henderson has been farming in Massachusetts and New York State using organic methods for 27 years. She is an active member of the Northeast Organic Farming Association (NOFA), co-chairs the organic committee of the National Campaign for Sustainable Agriculture and serves on the steering committee of the Agricultural Justice Project. Winters, she writes for farm newspapers and journals, and gives workshops at farmers’ conferences around the United States. With other NOFA members, she wrote The Real Dirt: Farmers Tell About Organic and Low-Input Practices in the Northeast, and has just completed the updated version of Sharing the Harvest: A Citizen’s Guide to Community Supported Agriculture with Robyn Van En (Chelsea Green, 2007).

       伊麗莎白.韓德森已經在麻州與紐約州從事有機農法27年。她是東北有機農法協會(NOFA)的活躍會員、全國永續農業運動的共同主席,以及農業正義計畫工程的指導委員會。每年冬季,她替農業報與農業期刊撰文,並在美國農業會議舉辦工作坊。伊麗莎白.韓德森與西北有機農法協會其它會員共同著有真實塵土:農民述說東北部有機與低投入實際作法,最近並剛與羅白恩.凡恩共同完成了最新版的共享收成:社區支持農業的市民指導手冊。

 

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An impenetrable wall of plastic and petroleum separates people in modern urban society from the source of their food. In the United States in particular the masses of the people mainly eat food that has been highly processed, packaged and transported to be sold to them from supermarkets, vending machines or fast food restaurants. Few stores bother to label food with its point of origin. The 7 to10 percent of the value of the raw food in processed products is buried by the 90 percent - the chopping, blending, cooking, extruding, packaging, distributing and advertising.  There is no connection between the food and the land on which it grew or the people who grew it.  A promising alternative to this state of affairs is Community Supported Agriculture (CSA).

        堅不可摧般的塑膠與石化之牆隔開了現代城市人與食物源頭。尤其是美國,多數人的食物主要來自超級市場、自動販賣機以及速食店裡過度加工、包裝與運輸的食品。很少商店致力於標示食物的來源。加工產品中百分之九十的產值(切割、組配、料理、擠壓、包裝、配送與廣告)掩沒了百分之七到十自然食材的價值。食物與作物人、土地沒有任何聯結,而充滿前景改變現狀的另類作法就是「社區支持型農業」。

The essence of CSA is a mutual commitment between a farm or group of farms, and a group of consumers. The farm feeds the people and, in return, the people support the farm, and share the inherent risks and potential bounty of farm production. In more traditional societies, people take these connections for granted.  In an agrarian society, like the United States early in its history, where most people live in the country and either grow their own food or purchase their food from a nearby farm, I can imagine people wondering why all the fuss? A connection with the land on which your food is grown is simply - normal. In industrialized countries like the United States, however, we must reinvent this most basic of human situations.

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Biodynamic 的機制(出處

        社區支持性農業的本質是一群人與一塊土地或一片區域土地間的相互承諾。農地餵養人們,而人們支持農地作為回報,並共同承擔內在的風險與享有潛在的產品報酬。在較為傳統的社會,人們視此連結為理所當然。在農業社會裡,如美國早期,大部分人自己種植作物或是從鄰近的農村採買食物。我能想像一些無法理解為何要如此大驚小怪的人。與培育出食物的土地相連結真是正常的。然而,像美國這樣工業化的國家,我們必須重新創造人類生活狀態的首要基礎。

The very first CSAs in the United States, Indian Line Farm in Massachusetts and Temple-Wilton Farm in New Hampshire, both initiated in 1986, established the model of the “community farm,” which dedicates its entire production to the members, or sharers. Indian Line divided its produce so that every sharer received an equal share or half-share. Temple-Wilton allowed sharers to take what they needed regardless of how much they paid.

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右圖:種植大蒜的聚會的通知…

        美國最初一開始的社區支持型農場是位於麻州的「印度安線農場(Indian Line Farm)」與新罕布什爾州的「天普-威爾頓農場(Temple-Wilton Farm)」,兩農場皆成立於1986年,並建立了「社區農業」的架構。社區支持型農場將所有的產品分給所有會員與股東。印度安線農場分配其產出,以確保每位股東分到相等的一份或半份。天普-威爾頓農場允許股東拿取他們所需,無論當初他們支付多少股資。

The example of these farms gave rise to the image of the ideal CSA: a smoothly functioning organic or biodynamic farm dividing up all its produce among a committed group of supporters who share the risks and benefits of farming with the farmers. With a market assured and income guaranteed, the farmers can concentrate on producing high quality food and practicing careful stewardship of the land. The members get to eat the freshest, tastiest, most nutritious food they have ever experienced, as though they were master gardeners, but with much less work. They and their children learn about food production and, by eating seasonally, make a deep connection to a very special piece of land. They respect and honor the farmers’ skills and hard work and express their appreciation through friendship, financial support and helping on the farm.  Members and farmers converge into a vital, and creative community that celebrates diversity, both social and biological, and makes food justice and security a living reality. Local, regional and even international networks of CSAs and other sustainable food enterprises supply members year round with ecologically produced and fairly traded foods.

        這些農場形塑了社區支持型農業的完美映象:一個順利運作的有機或自然動力農場,將其產品分給與農夫共享風險與利益的支持者。因為確保銷路與收入,農夫可以專心生產高品質的農產品,並細心地擔任土地守護員。會員得以吃到有史以來最新鮮、美味、營養的食物,這些會員彷彿本身就像是只需費了很少心力的耕作大師。藉由隨季節性的飲食,這些會員還有他們的小孩學習有關食物生產並與特定的土地做更深的聯結。他們尊崇作事人的農作技術與心力,並以友誼、財力支持和協助農事來表達對農民的感恩。會員與農民結合成一個關鍵、有活力的社區,這個社區慶賀著社會豐富性與生物多樣性,並讓食物正義與糧食安全成為真實。在地、區域與國際性社區支持型農業網絡及其它永續食品企業供應會員一年到頭環保的食物與公平貿易食品。

Only about a quarter of the CSA farms have emulated the community farm model. Out of the thirty CSA farms in Vermont, only one produces exclusively for sharers, while the others continue to sell to a variety of markets. The amount of member participation in either growing or distributing the food varies tremendously from farm to farm. At one extreme are CSAs like the Genesee Valley Organic in New York, for which I am one of the farmers, which require all sharers to do some work as part of their share payment. At the other, are what have come to be known as “Subscription” CSAs, where the farm crew does all of the work, and members pay a fee and simply receive a box or bag of produce each week, similar to the “box schemes” which have become popular in England. Most CSAs range somewhere in between, with members volunteering for special workdays on the farm, helping with distribution or defraying part of their payment by doing “working” shares. Besides supplying food, most CSAs also publish newsletters to inform members about the farm, how the food is grown and handled, and how to make best use of the food.

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只有約四分之一的社區支持型農場仿製社區農場的架構。在維蒙特州三十個社區支持性農場裡,只有一個專為股東生產,其餘的農場繼續將產品賣到各類的市場。每個農場參與食物種植與配送的會員數量各不相同。極端的社區支持型農業要求所有股東投入某些農事作為他們的股份投資。位於紐約的Genesee 有機村就是社區支持型農業的一個極端,而我是其中的一位農人。有些就如同眾所皆知的社區支持型農業「參與俱樂部」,這種類型的農場工作人員投入所有的農事工作,會員繳交費用,得以每週領取一箱、袋的農產品。這種俱樂部形式類似在英格蘭變得普遍盛行的「箱制度」。大多數社區支持型農場介於這兩者間,會員自願性地在特定的工作日自願投入農事,幫忙配送或是從事一些「農事股份」以抵扣他們的會費。除了供應食品外,大多數的社區支持型農場也發佈工作日報讓其會員了解農場運作、糧食耕作、處理之過程,還有如何將食物做最佳使用。

Even subscription farms with no more than a month’s commitment from the members provide more of a connection between the land and the eater of the food than conventional food sources. As farms become more secure with this form of marketing, they are finding more ways to involve their members. Many subscription farms ask members to provide distribution sites on their porches or in their garages. After five years of supplying weekly boxes of produce to over 800 families in and around Chicago, Angelic Organics took the further step of forming a core group. These active members are helping the farm raise funds to purchase more land, arranging for distribution of leftover food to low-income families, promoting the CSA through a newsletter, and organizing community events at the farm. The members of Bill Brammer’s subscription CSA near San Diego have assisted the farm in finding more land to rent, and lobbied for changes in land use zoning that make the rental terms more favorable to the farm.

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        儘管沒有得到會員超過一個月的承諾的俱樂部型農場,俱樂部型農場在提供土地與食者間的聯結上,仍扮演較強的角色,而不僅只像個傳統的食物供給者。隨著農場漸漸對這種形式的行銷有信心,他們尋求更多的管道來吸納會員。許多俱樂部型的會員要求會員提供其家中的門廊或車庫當作配送點。經過五年,安格黎克有機農場(Angelic Organics)在芝加哥地區每星期以箱配給食材超過800個家庭,其更採取進一步的作法組織一個核心團體。這些活躍的會員目前正協助農場募款購買更多的農地,安排將多餘的食材配送至低收入戶家庭,並透過工作日報推廣社區支持型農業,籌辦社區活動。在鄰近聖地牙哥的比爾盃摩(Bill Brammer)俱樂部農場,會員已經協助農場尋找更多待租的農地,並遊說改變土地分區使用管理,以使租用農地條件更有利於農場經營。

We do not know how many CSA projects there are in the United States or North America. The Robyn Van En Center for CSA Resources lists over 1200 CSAs on their website, www.csacenter.org. In 2005, Steven McFadden, author of Farms of Tomorrow Revisited, estimated that there were over 1700 CSAs feeding 250,000 households. I do know that CSAs vary in size from three shares to over 2300. They can be found as far north as Palmer, Alaska, (and even farther north in Canada), and as far south as Gainesville, Florida, or San Diego, California. The densest clusters are in the northeast, around the Twin Cities and Madison in the upper midwest, and in the Bay Area of California. The number of CSAs is increasing quickly where regional networks, such as Equiterre in Quebec and Just Food in New York City, provide technical assistance. Most CSAs are either organic or Biodynamic in method of production. A few are in transition to organic or to a lower use of chemicals.

        我們不知道在美國或北美洲有多少的社區支持型農業。贊成社區支持型農業的羅白恩.凡恩中心(The Robyn Van En Center)在它的網站上(www.csacenter.org)羅列超過1200個社區支持型農業農場。在2005年時,重遊明日農田(Farms of Tomorrow Revisited)一書的作者史蒂芬.麥克菲登(Steven McFadden)估計有1700個這樣的農場供應250,000個家庭所需。我的確知道各個農場在規模上差異非常大,從三個股東到2300個都有。這些農場最北遠至阿拉斯加的伯爾瑪(Palmer, Alaska),最南則至佛州的蓋恩斯維爾(Gainesville, Florida)或是加州的聖地牙哥(San Diego, California)。最密集的區域在東北部約雙子城(Twin Cities)附近、北西上半部的麥迪遜(Madison),以及加州的灣區(Bay Area)。社區支持型農場的數量持續增加,區域網絡像是魁北克的愛克特瑞(Equiterre)或是紐約的公平食物(Just food),皆提供了技術上的協助。大部分社區支持型農業採有機或是自然動力方法種植。只有少數目前正處於過渡到有機的階段,或是處在過渡到減少化學農藥使用的階段。

Throughout the United States, the number of CSAs continues to increase as local food becomes more popular and word spreads among farmers, and as groups of farms, rural development and community food security projects realize the potential significance. Around Lawrence, Kansas, twelve farms cooperate in the Rolling Prairie CSA that makes its pick-up point the delicatessen section of the local food coop. Many of these same farmers are working together on a tomato processing project. Near Hartford, Connecticut, the Hartford Food System, a community food security organization, has set up a CSA that sells half its shares to suburban families, and the other half to inner-city groups working with low-income and minority populations. One of these groups brings the homeless teenage girls it serves to the farm for farmwork, and then the girls sell some of the food at a stand they run to raise money for activities. Several food banks are running similar CSAs. In 2000, Good Will Industries in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, is launched a CSA combining food production with training for some of the developmentally challenged people whom they service. There are many other CSAs that combine growing food for shares with other social missions.

        在美國各地,隨著在地食物變得更為盛行、農人之間傳開此類訊息,以及隨著農作組織、農村發展與社區糧食安全計畫工程達到了它的潛在重要性,社區支持性農業農場的數目也持續增加。在堪薩斯州的勞倫斯(Lawrence, Kansas)附近,12個農場在「旋轉草原社區支持性農場」合作,使這個旅途中的載客點成為在地食材熟食區。許多這些相同的農民正合力投入蕃茄加工計畫方案。在康乃狄克州哈佛特(Hartford, Connecticut)附近,一個社區糧食安全組織:哈佛特食品系統,已經設立了社區支持型農業的模式,他們將一半的產出賣給會員家庭,其餘一半賣給城內那些協助低收入與弱勢團體的組織。其中有一個組織帶來了一些無家可歸的女孩,這些女孩投入一些農事工作、在攤子銷售食物,而後將錢投入農場活動。另外,部分食物銀行也營運類似的社區支持型農場。在2000年時,在賓州藍司特(Lancaster, Pennsylvania)的天意企業組織設立了一個社區支持型農業農場,其結合了食物生產與針對他們客戶(挑戰開發人員)的訓練課程。另外也有一些許多其它社區支持型農業農場把替股東種植食物與社會責任相互結合。

Members of other CSAs in the United States, Japan and other countries have expressed how important the farm connection, the chemical free food, and the education about how food is grown is to their children. Many report that their children eat more of the vegetables after they’ve been to the farm and helped pick them. Members with children make up the majority in most CSAs, and many parents say they have joined because of the children. A member of Harmony Valley wrote this comment, which I think typifies parent sentiment about CSAs: “The biggest benefit is that our kids could see where our veggies come from … and I believe this encouraged them to believe that veggies are a wonderful gift and therefore would eat them.”

        美國、日本及其它國家社區支持型農場的會員已經表示農地聯結、無農藥殘留食物以及在教育中讓孩童了解關於食物如何生長之重要性。許多人反應當他們的小孩親身到農田幫忙採收蔬菜後,小孩們吃更多的蔬菜。有孩子的會員佔社區支持型農場的大多數,許多父母表示他們是為了小孩而加入的。有一位和諧村的會員寫出了他的意見,我想他的意見是父母的典型意見。他說:最大的好處是我們的小孩看見了蔬菜從何而來,而我相信這讓小孩體會到蔬菜是多麼美好的恩賜,因此願意吃菜。

Of the hundreds of CSAs I contacted in writing Sharing the Harvest: A Guide To Community Support Agriculture, no two are alike. Each successful project reflects the needs, talents, and resources of its farm and community. The participants are creating CSA as they go, inventing a great array of organizational solutions. As they become established in their communities, CSAs are maturing, and flowering, and sharing their best ideas with one another.

       在我接觸數百個社區支持型農場裡,用來撰寫共享收成:社區支持農業的市民指導手冊的農場,沒有一個是相同的。每一個成功的案例都反應其農地與社區獨特的需求、天賦與資源。參與者正不斷創造社區支持型農業,創造一系列絕妙的組織解決方案。當這些參與者在他們的社區站的更穩健,社區支持型農場也日漸成熟、開花結果,並能與其它的農場共享想法。

Invaluable as computer models and sophisticated indicators of sustainable development may be, the real story is happening on the ground in community supported farms and gardens, a living reality for thousands of people who are learning to work together to live more sustainably. In the shadow of the global supermarket, CSAs, like 2000 farmer-consumer-controlled experiment stations, are busy researching the social and economic relations of a more just and equitable future.

        也許如電腦模型或是精密的永續指標是無價的,但是真實的故事正發生在支持農業的社區大地上,數千人正學習合作過得更永續。在全球超級市場的陰影下,社區支持型農業就像是2000個農民、消費者共同管理的實驗站,正繁忙地研究一個更具正義平等未來社會的社經關連。

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社區支持型農業的參考資料

Bibliography on CSA:

Sharing the Harvest: A Citizen’s Guide to Community Supported Agriculture by Elizabeth Henderson with Robyn Van En, Chelsea Green, 2007.

Trauger Groh and Steven McFadden, Farms of Tomorrow Revisited: Community Supported Farms - Farm Supported Communities, Biodynamic Farming and Gardening Association, Kimberton, PA. 1997.

Timothy J. Laird, Community Supported Agriculture: A Study of an Emerging Agricultural Alternative, MA Thesis, University of Vermont, 1995.

ATTRA (Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas) P.O. Box 3657, Fayetteville, AR 72702, 800-346-9140. www.attra.org. Packet of basic information on CSA.

The Robyn Van En Center for CSA Resources, Wilson College, 1015 Philadelphia Ave., Chambersburg. PA 17201. 717-264-4141, ext. 3247, FAX: 717-264-1578. e-mail: info@csacenter.org. Website: www.csacenter.org. Listing of CSAs by state

The Wilson College CSA Project can also supply a CSA brochure, which serves as a general introduction to the concept, a CSA information packet, an 80 page CSA Handbook: A Practical Guide to Starting and Operating a Successful CSA, and a collection of clip art.


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  1. luohong 二月 3rd 2012 at 11:40 am 1

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